The library catalog of the Cathedral Chapter of Kraków dating back to 1110 shows that in the early 12th-century Polish intellectuals had access to European literature.
The Jagiellonian University, founded in 1364 by King Casimir III in Kraków, is one of Europe's oldest universities.
This certificate is however not needed to enter Junior High School.
The junior high school (gimnazjum) covers lower secondary education and ends general basic education and lasts three years. General education can be pursued in general secondary schools (liceum): after three years, students can pass the "Matura", which grants access to higher education.
Both end with a maturity exam (matura, similar to French baccalauréat), and may be followed by several forms of upper education, leading to Bachelor: licencjat or inżynier (the Polish Bologna Process first cycle qualification), Master: magister (the Polish Bologna Process second cycle qualification) and eventually Ph D: doktor (the Polish Bologna Process third cycle qualification).
After the partitions of Poland, compulsory education was introduced by Prussian authorities in Polish provinces which belonged to Prussia (1825), and Austrian authorities in Galicia (1873).In 1773 King Stanisław August Poniatowski established the Commission of National Education (Komisja Edukacji Narodowej), the world's first state ministry of education.The first university in Poland, Kraków's Jagiellonian University, was established in 1364 by Casimir III the Great in Kraków. It is the second oldest university in Central Europe (after Prague University) and one of the oldest universities in the world.Casimir III realized that the nation needed a class of educated people, especially lawyers, who could codify the country's laws and administer the courts and offices.His efforts to found an institution of higher learning in Poland were finally rewarded when Pope Urban V granted him permission to open the University of Kraków.